underwater cultural heritage

Issue 09 2021

The Legal Situation of the Shipwreck Nuestra Señora del Juncal: Ownership and Protection Under International Law

by Carlos A. CRUZ CARRILLO 31 December 2021

On 31 October 1631, the Spanish galleon Nuestra Señora del Juncal succumbed to a storm and sank near the coasts of Campeche (Mexico). From a legal perspective, Mexico and Spain retain a legal interest over the wreck as coastal state and flag state, respectively. This article examines the legal situation of the wreck in the …More

Issue 05 2018-2019

Looking for “Submerged Commons”: Towards a New Era for Underwater Cultural Heritage?

by Francesca VARVELLO 21 November 2019

Even if not originally conceived of as related to cultural heritage, the common heritage of mankind (CHM) principle progressively makes its way into this field too. International norms regulating underwater cultural heritage (UCH) fit in the same evolving trend. However, they have to relate to an existing legal framework that has a completely different – …More